The prepared stump remains in this state until next summer. During this time, the entire root system is saturated with saltpeter and dries up. A fire is built around the stump, which must be maintained until the skeleton is completely destroyed. If the top cut of the stump is flush with the ground, additional recesses can be drilled in it for pouring gasoline or kerosene. The combustible mixture is ignited, initiating the process of combustion and smoldering of hemp throughout the volume. After complete burnout, the place where the stump was located is dug up and covered with earth.
For one stump left from a medium-sized fruit tree (up to 15 cm in diameter), about 2 kg of saltpeter is consumed. Its quantity affects mainly not the completeness, but the rate of wood burning out. To achieve maximum destruction of the stump, including the roots, you should wait until the tree is completely dry after winter and spring rains.
For reference, in order to fit 1 kg of saltpeter into a stump, you need to make twenty holes with a diameter of 1 cm, five holes with a diameter of 2 cm or two holes with a diameter of 3 cm (depth - 30 cm). The thicker the drill, the faster the work will go.
The preparation of the stump with this method is completely identical to the use of saltpeter - the stump is perforated with drills of maximum diameter, and urea (urea) is poured into the holes formed. The top of the holes is filled with water, after which the stump is tightly wrapped with a polymer film. After 1-2 years, the woody remains completely rot, and in their place is a fertile layer of soil.
Do not confuse urea and ammonium nitrate. These are completely different compounds - urea is relatively harmless, while ammonium nitrate is a rather explosive and toxic substance.
For reference - to place 1 kg of urea in a stump, you will have to make about thirty holes with a diameter of 1 cm, eight holes with a diameter of 2 cm or four holes with a diameter of 3 cm (30 cm deep). The consumption of urea for removing a medium-sized stump is selected in the same way as when laying saltpeter.
When using any fertilizer, it is recommended to use protective equipment. Old clothes and gloves for hands are quite suitable for working with saltpeter. When working with urea, you can not use such precautions, but you should not scatter the chemical around the area and take it with your bare hands either.
You can quickly remove the stump when using a tractor, excavator or puller (hand cutter). Attracting large-sized equipment can be inconvenient or even impossible due to the presence of a fence, plants and equipped paths on the site. Buying a manual rooter or hiring a specialist with his own tool is a very costly undertaking to remove one stump. To save money and effort, you need to involve one or two assistants and adhere to the general rules of work.
Extraction of the skeleton using a winch: to get the stump out of the ground, you can tie it around the trunk and roots with a metal cable stretched through the winch. The cable should extend to the winch from the saw cut, thus providing a lever for overturning the stump. The winch is mounted on a firmly fixed pole or other tree.
Mechanical removal: if it is not possible to use a winch, the tree frame can be removed by cutting or sawing off its roots. The specific method depends on the degree of openness of the roots and the availability of access to them with an ax or saw. If it is not possible to expose the root, it can be cut right in the ground using a pick - scrap metal or a thin pipe with an ax welded at one end. A similar tool is often used by janitors, breaking off icing from the asphalt.
After cutting off the side branches, a central post is usually left, which is difficult to approach. It is already turning from side to side and partially rotates around its axis. You can break it with a deep vertical root by active turns and tilts in different directions.
Trim the lower leaves with secateurs if you want to remove the "skirt". The bottom leaves of a yucca are called the "skirt". Start at the bottom and trim the leaves with a knife, razor blade, garden shears, or pruner. Make the cut as close as possible to the trunk of the yucca. Stop removing leaves around the middle of the tree or when you are satisfied with its appearance.
Leaves can be cut at any time of the year. Note that yucca is best pruned in the spring, so you can wait and prune the plant later.
Like palm trees, the lower leaves of the yucca form a kind of "skirt".
Pruning damaged leaves is good for the plant, especially if it has withered. Pruning such leaves contributes to the healing of the plant.
Cut off the flower stem 10 cm from the base. Do this after the yucca has bloomed. When the yucca blooms, white flowers begin to grow on its top. Grasp the flower stem, remove the leaves so they don't get in your way, and cut the flower with a pruner, sharp knife, or garden shears.
The plant can be pruned before it blooms, although yucca pruning is usually done after flowering. Prune the plant as soon as the yucca blooms, or wait for the flowers to wilt.
When you're done, collect and dispose of any cut pieces. Discard the leaves or use them as compost. Enjoy your new kind of plant!
You can free the trees from yellowed needles several times a season, but the main sanitary cleaning is done in the spring. For work, you will need gloves and a hand pruner. First, carefully pushing the branches apart, remove with your hands everything that crumbles freely. Then, using a pruner, remove the dried and broken branches.It is not necessary to remove every scale from the tree. At the end, you can use a blower to blow through the crown and shake off stuck needles.
Picture 1. Cricket.
Crickets, like other Orthopterans, are insects with incomplete transformation. A larva (nymph) emerges from the egg, similar to an adult insect (imago) and leading a lifestyle similar to it. After several molts, accompanied by the growth of the body, the gradual development of wing buds, gonads and sensory organs (an increase in the number of facets in the eyes, antennae segments, sensilla in various parts of the body), the larva turns into an adult insect.
Sexual maturity of adults occurs several days after the final molt. Most crickets have the ability to sing. Only males make sounds. The beginning of singing (stridulation) indicates the readiness of the male for mating. Many crickets (for example, G. bimaculatus, A. domesticus, G. assimilis) emit three types of signals: calling (to attract females), precopulation (when courting a female in close proximity to her) and aggression when a stranger male appears near the mink or a couple preparing for copulation. The rhythmic pattern of calling and precopulation signals is species-specific. The female can mate several times and, after filling the spermatheca, begins to lay eggs.
According to Knyazev (1985), oviposition in G. bimaculatus lasts for a month, however, the maximum number of eggs is laid during the first 2 weeks. The female lays eggs one at a time or in groups of 2-4 in moist soil. Embryonic development lasts an average of 17 days (at + 26 ° C). After that, a prelarva emerges from the egg, which, having climbed to the surface of the soil, immediately molts onto the 1st instar larva. Hatching of prelarvae in G. bimaculatus occurs within 9 days, and 75% of the eggs laid at the beginning of the reproductive period develop longer than the eggs laid in its middle and end, thus synchronization of the end of embryogenesis is observed. At the same time, 25% of eggs laid by old females matured much longer: from 13 to 22 days, which led to the opposite phenomenon - desynchronization of embryonic development.
The development rate and survival rate of eggs and larvae depend on several factors:
- temperatures: at high temperatures, development accelerates, but a fairly large percentage of eggs die;
- density of larvae in the occupied volume: at low densities the duration of the 2nd-4th instars increases, at high densities the duration of the 1st and 6th instars increases. The survival rate in large groups is lower than in small ones, which is associated with more frequent damage to the larvae during molting at a high density of individuals;
- the size of the larvae: the survival of large nymphs of the 1st-3rd instars is 79%, of small ones - 21%.
Picture 2. Cricket eggs look like.
Female crickets lay 200 to 500 eggs, and only do so when the substrate is moist. For laying eggs, a container with moistened loose soil is placed in a cage with crickets, closed on top with a wire mesh with a cell width of at least 2 mm. The grid prevents the crickets from digging up the substrate and eating the eggs. When trying to lay eggs in a substrate that is too dense or dry, females often deform the ovipositor, which leads to a loss of fertility.
Eggs develop for about 10 days at a temperature of 25 ° C, so the tanks are usually replaced every five to ten days to obtain a continuous release of juveniles. After the fry emerge, caring for it is not difficult. It is necessary to constantly have a sufficiently soft protein feed (preferably in a separate feeder with low sides) and a source of moisture (a wick drinker is optimal). Depending on the temperature, the development cycle of crickets takes from 40-45 to 60 or more days.
Picture 3. Cricket laying eggs.
Females will lay their eggs in moist soil. Little crickets will appear from time to time. Parents do not suffer from childishness and may well eat a child caught in the jaw. But all the same, in the insectarium you will always have a certain amount of crickets who will live to maturity.
If you want to get more crickets, then the method of keeping and breeding should be changed. To do this, you need large glass aquariums or plastic containers with a tight lid. You can also use boxes made of multi-layer waterproof plywood. Their capacity can be from 30 to 200 liters. A prerequisite is the presence of a large number of ventilation holes in the side walls and lids, tightened with a fine metal mesh with a mesh of 0.5-1 mm (crickets gnaw through the nylon sieve).
In order to achieve reproduction, you need to put in a container a shallow plastic container without a lid, filled with a moist substrate (preferably coconut). After a short period of time, females will begin to pierce the substrate with their ovipositor and lay eggs. Usually leave the container with the substrate for 2-3 days, making sure that the substrate does not dry out. After three days, taking out the container, you will see white oblong eggs near the walls at a shallow depth.
Then you can pour the substrate with eggs into a more spacious container, close it with a lid with very small diameter holes (or frequent gauze) and keep at a temperature of 28-300C, and a humidity of at least 70% (so that the substrate is moist). For this option, a fluorescent lamp is required, the container is placed on top of the fluorescent lamp housing. Another way is the battery.
Crickets will hatch at normal room temperature, but this will take a long time. At high temperatures, incubation lasts 1-2 weeks, at room temperature - about a month.
After hatching, newborn crickets are left in the same container, torn crumpled paper is placed there, egg cardboard (preferably from under quail eggs) and food can be placed.
Sweet corn sticks and lettuce work very well for young crickets. It is better to put the food on a piece of plastic, because when it comes into contact with a wet substrate, it gets wet, quickly deteriorates and the resulting mold spreads to the substrate. Temperature and humidity do not change.
After 2-3 weeks, the crickets molt several times and grow noticeably. When the size of the crickets reaches 4-5mm, they are transplanted into an insectory with adults, although if it is possible to keep the young in a separate aquarium, this is very good.
Picture 4. Camel cricket eggs look like.
The newborn nymph is white, but after a while it darkens. The color is yellow-gray with specks. The body length of a cricket is about 2 cm. Cave crickets have long legs and very long antennae, reaching a length of 12 cm! The female has no wings; the male has a shortened front pair of wings.
These crickets are incapable of chirping. When communicating, they flap their wings, making low-frequency sounds. Each male has his own territory, which he guards from the invasion of other males. So when several males are kept together in a small area, fights can arise. During the mating dance, cave crickets flap their wings over their heads several times. They are able to jump well and far, so you need to be careful with them.
The female in the latter stages of development can be distinguished by the presence of an ovipositor. With the help of the ovipositor, the female lays eggs in a moist substrate to a depth of 3–4 cm or under pieces of bark. In total, the female lays several hundred eggs. Egg length 2.5–3 mm. Eggs are best left in the same terrarium where they were laid. Nymphs hatch after about a month. The development of the nymph lasts 6-9 months. Imagoes live for about 4, sometimes up to 7 months.
Picture 5. House Cricket eggs look like.
Lays 50-150 eggs per season. But if the conditions are favorable, the air temperature is about 30C, then the female lays up to 700 eggs. The eggs are white, similar in shape to a banana. Indoor crickets can lay eggs one at a time or in heaps in different crevices.
Seeing an insect with a large number of legs in the house or in the country, only one name comes to mind - scolopendra. Surely you have heard about its danger to humans and how difficult it is to take it out in the house if it starts to inhabit it.
We hasten to reassure you: centipede and centipede are not the same thing. These 2 types of pests belong to the same species of arthropods, but differ from each other both in appearance and in the strength of the impact. They are found most often in damp and poorly ventilated rooms - bathrooms, attics, closets. In a living environment, they live in beds, under the bark of trees, in fallen leaves.
Since this is a nocturnal insect, it is not visible in the house during the day. But this does not mean that centipedes do not live in your house. Despite all their benefits - they eat cockroaches, ants, flies, worms and moths, it is best to get rid of them as soon as possible. This will help you sleep more comfortably at night.
Some large centipedes can cause a painful bite, causing swelling and redness. Symptoms rarely last more than 48 hours. They don't bite, but they can produce irritating venom, especially if you accidentally rub your eye.
The pain is usually relieved by applying a cloth-wrapped ice cube to the centipede bite. The milipede toxin must be washed off the skin with plenty of soap and water. If a skin reaction develops, a corticosteroid cream is applied. If the eyes are damaged, they should be rinsed immediately.
Some millipede bites can cause soreness, swelling, and redness of the skin around the bite site. Nearby lymph nodes sometimes enlarge, but no tissue damage or infection usually occurs. In rare cases, symptoms last longer than 48 hours. Centipedes, when bitten, can release a toxin that irritates the skin and, in severe cases, causes skin damage. Scolopendra bites are the most severe.
To relieve pain, an ice cube is applied to the bite site. Toxic secretions of the centipede should be washed off the skin with plenty of soap and water; you cannot use alcohol. If a skin reaction develops, it is recommended to lubricate the skin with a corticosteroid ointment. If the eye is injured, it should be rinsed immediately with water and an eye ointment containing an anesthetic and corticosteroids (hormonal drugs) should be applied.
When to see a doctor:
With pain at the site of a millipede bite, spreading up the limb, with tissue necrosis at the site of the bite.
For pain, burning, redness of the skin, edema, swollen lymph nodes.
With nausea, dizziness, anxiety, feeling unwell.
When to call an ambulance:
With palpitations, arrhythmias, decreased blood pressure.
Loss of consciousness.
With the rapid development of edema of the bitten limb, rash.
with difficulty breathing.
The pain caused by a centipede bite or silverfish house centipedehas been described as comparable to pain from scorpion stings and snake bites. However, unlike scorpions and snakes, in which some are more venomous than others, the toxicity of centipede venom is uniform across all species.
Therefore, the amount and intensity of pain correlates with the size of the insect. Large centipedes have large projections that can inject venom deeper under the skin.
The wound is accompanied by swelling, redness, and minor puncture injuries that can form a circle. The trauma is prone to local ulceration and necrosis.
Usually centipedes bite when a person is resting in bed, but they can crawl into clothes and bite the moment you start dressing. But there is good news: scolopendra bites are not fatal! In order for a person to die from its poison, several thousand individuals need to bite him at the same time!
Although spiders are usually harmless, they can infest your car and damage the interior. If you want to prevent or eliminate a spider infestation, use one of several methods outlined in this article. Clean up the cabin, use natural anti-spider products, and start different parking and headlights. With a little effort, you will soon get rid of the spiders in your car.
Picture1. Spiders in a car
Spiders hide in dark, secluded spots they can find, so do your best to eliminate those spots in your car. Throw away the trash and place any unnecessary items in a plastic or reusable bag. Put the bag in the trunk and take it out of the car as soon as possible and leave it at home.Wash the car and vacuum thoroughly in the cabin. Spiders love to hide in dark, dirty places. Spend some time cleaning so that spiders don't have a chance to settle somewhere in the salon. Vacuum the floor, paying special attention to corners and crumbs, and be sure to wipe down everywhere.3Since spiders can enter the car through small holes, the rubber seal should prevent them.four
The vibrations of a turned on car can scare spiders, so when they start scattering, some of them may hide in the cabin. Try to start the car only when absolutely necessary, especially if spiders often enter the car. [
Spiders move in the direction of a running car, and not away from it, as they seek to find an "epicenter" where vibrations will not harm them. This behavior is similar to taking refuge in the eye of a hurricane.
Make an essential oil spray to naturally repel spiders. Due to their strong smell and taste, some essential oils can repel spiders and other insects. Take a spray bottle and mix 5-7 drops of essential oil with 2 glasses (480 ml) of water, then spray this mixture around the car. The following essential oils are especially effective against spiders:
Picture2. Lavender against spiders in the car
Eucalyptus leaves are a natural plant-scented spider remedy. Place fresh eucalyptus leaves in various compartments of your car (such as the trunk or glove compartment) to keep spiders away from certain areas.
Eucalyptus leaves can be ordered online or purchased from your local nursery.
Spiders are attracted by bright light, therefore, if spiders are in the car, we advise you not to turn on the light in the cabin. When you turn on your headlights at night, try to turn them off immediately after you park your car.
If someone in the car uses electronic devices, ask him to reduce the brightness of the screen.
Diesel cars are more likely to attract spiders because of their size and their tendency to vibrate when the car is started. Do not use or buy a diesel car if you are worried about a spider infestation.
If you are having trouble getting rid of spiders on your own, hire a pest control officer to assess the extent of the problem and relieve you of it.
Vacuum everywhere in your car. Put on a special nozzle on the vacuum cleaner pipe and remove all the egg bags, cobwebs and all the spiders you find. Pay special attention to corners, as well as areas under rugs and seats. Be sure to also clean up dirt, crumbs and other debris as they can attract spiders.
After vacuuming in the car, take out the bag of the vacuum cleaner and throw it away from the car so that the spiders cannot return.
Egg bags provide small, oval-shaped, silky, gray lumps.
Sprinkle vinegar and vanilla all over the car. Soak a few cotton balls in the same solution and place them in the trunk, glove compartment, and interior of your car as a long lasting spider repellent.
How to identify:
Outwardly, the terms are often confused with ants. They are just as small and have a similar body shape. Biologists believe that these pests are relatives of cockroaches. But ants are just their worst enemies. Colonies have a well-organized hierarchy. They are divided into:
How to identify:
Mosquitoes are slender dipterans with an elongated body, small head, long thin proboscis, mostly with long legs. The wings, covered with scales along the veins, fold at rest horizontally over the abdomen, overlapping one another. The body is fragile and does not differ in mechanical strength.
Groundhogs form a distinct group of 14 or 15 species (the status of the forest-steppe marmot as a separate species is under discussion), within the squirrel family. These are relatively large, weighing several kilograms, animals that live in open landscapes, in burrows built independently. The ancestral home of marmots is North America, from where they spread through Beringia to Asia, and further to Europe. Usually has a small tail. They breed once a year, the breeding season begins soon after awakening and mating takes place in burrows even before the marmots come to the surface. Moreover, only 13-80% of females participate in mating. ... The female brings 1-3 to 4-5 baby woodchuck and feeds them with milk for about 50 days.
How to identify:
The body length of an adult insect is 6-8 mm. The body width is 4-5 mm. The wingspan reaches 20 mm. The color is gray, on the upper side of the chest there are four black longitudinal stripes, the lower part of the abdomen is yellowish. The whole body is covered with sparse long hairs. The eyes are large, faceted, dark red. In females, the distance between the eyes is increased.
How to identify:
Depending on the species, the mass of a chipmunk can be from 30 to 120 g, and the size is from 5 to 15 cm with a tail length of 7 to 12 cm.The most noticeable feature of all species is five dark stripes along the back, separated by white or gray stripes. The coloration of other parts of the body is red-brown or gray-brown. Since this is a common feature of all chipmunks, individual species are at first glance difficult to distinguish.
How to identify:
The body consists of three parts: the head, chest and abdomen. The body is supported by its external exoskeleton - the cuticle.
Outside, the body is covered with hairs that perform the functions of the organs of touch and protect the cover from pollution.
The parts of the body are interconnected by thin elastic cuticle membranes. On the head are two large compound and three simple eyes.
How to identify:
You can miss them due to the following characteristics:
- no claw on the second toe of the forelimbs;
the outer ears are usually complex in shape, often have a developed tragus or antigus, a folded back edge, etc.
- the overall size is usually small (on average, the body weight of bats is 4-10 g), although among insectivorous bats there are those that are larger than the smallest fruit bats;