General characteristics of spiders
Before answering the question of how long spiders live, let's figure out what kind of insects they are, their type and lifespan.
In Arachnids, the body is divided into two sections - the cephalothorax and abdomen, there are no antennae.
On the cephalothorax there are four pairs of walking limbs and two pairs of modified limbs (mouth organs - chelicerae and leg tentacles), which serve to capture and grind food.
The most notable feature is the first pair of limbs (chelicerae), which were originally pincer-shaped, but in common insects they transformed into poisonous stings.
Different parts of the spider web warts give off different types of cobwebs. Insects web threads vary in thickness, strength, stickiness. The spider uses various types of web to build a trapping net: at its base there are stronger and not sticky threads, and concentric threads are thinner and more sticky. Insects use webs to reinforce the walls of their shelters and to make cocoons for their eggs. Young insects use long cobweb threads to move through space, which facilitates their dispersal. With the help of spider webs, spiders can descend from tree branches and other supports to the ground and rise.
A silvery water insects lives in ponds and rivers with slowly flowing water, which builds its nest from a web in the water and fills it with air for its spiders.
A characteristic feature of all spiders, regardless of the variety, is the ability to secrete a special liquid from the warts at the end of the abdomen, which immediately solidifies into a cobweb. The web is different depending on the purpose. Insects make nets from it to catch prey, weave a shelter for themselves, make a cocoon to protect eggs, and use it for dispersal.
All spiders are predators, feeding mostly on insects. They get them either by trapping, or actively pursuing, or using trapping nets. Is the shape of trapping nets different for different insects? To kill prey, spiders use curved hook-shaped jaws (chelicerae), with a channel inside, through which poison flows into the victim's body.
After laying eggs, the female either guards the cocoon with eggs with spiders lying in the shelter, or drags it with her.
Young insects that emerged from eggs usually first stick together and then scatter. In some species, they tend to climb somewhere higher - on fences, bushes, trees. Here they release a small light cobweb, which is picked up by the wind and, together with the spider at its end, is carried away into the distance. This is how the resettlement of young spiders occurs. Usually this happens in the fall, during the "Indian summer", and then everywhere on the bushes and fences we see cobwebs shining in the sun.
The life cycle of spiders and their lifespan
Research has shown that insects, in all their species, exhibit a certain conservatism in the sense that they associate their most important life processes not only with a certain type of weather, but also with certain periods of time during the year or season. It was possible to establish that such bio-phenomena as mating, laying of cocoons, dispersal of juveniles, always occurs against the background of sunny warm weather with a wind speed of no more than 0.2 - 0.4 meters per second.
These phenomena during the observed time occur in the same calendar terms with a deviation from one to five days. Moreover, if these insects changed their behavior during the indicated periods, then, as a rule, this anticipated a change in the weather, and after 1.5 - 2.5 days a change in the state of the atmosphere could be expected. In general, the activity on the temperature and humidity of the air, most of them are warm and moisture-loving, these phenomena affect their lifespan. But there are many species that are active at relatively low temperatures.
During winter thaws at a temperature of +6 ... + 7 degrees Celsius, small spiders appear en masse on the snow. It should be added that spiders are able to predict the weather to some extent. Since the production of gossamer fluid is very expensive for the body, if necessary, it should be used sparingly, the goal is to keep it as long as possible. Consequently, the insects will not build its webs if it expects rain or strong winds that can ruin or destroy its structure. Nature has endowed him with an amazing flair, which allows him to foresee the weather eight to ten hours before its onset, which guides him in his buildings.
Also, the spider can sometimes take some precautionary measures in advance before the onset of bad weather, for example, it breaks the net in a known direction or changes its direction in space, and sometimes even completely descends. Most often, this behavior was seen for indoor spiders and spider spiders.
Hatching of fry from eggs of one clutch occurs more or less simultaneously. Before hatching, the embryo is covered with a thin cuticle, at the base of the pedipalps, spikes are formed - "egg teeth", with the help of which the egg membranes are torn. The hatched spider has thin integuments, undifferentiated appendages, is immobile and cannot actively feed, many organs at this stage are still far from their final form, and the state of the whole organism is largely embryonic. At this stage of development, spiders are called nymphs. They live off the yolk formed in the intestines, however, sometimes cases of cannibalism among nymphs of a later age and their eating underdeveloped eggs are described. The nymphal stage proceeds under the protection of the cocoon; the number of these stages varies from one to three. The last nymph, having thrown off the shell, turns into the first preimaginal stage, leaving the cocoon and beginning an independent life. In Dysderidae, after hatching from eggs to the first molt (that is, before becoming the first nymphal stage), it takes one to four days. And then another nymphal stage follows. In Lucosidae, the first molt occurs simultaneously with hatching, that is, nymph I hatches from the egg, which after a while turns into nymph II.
In the overwhelming majority of Enteligynae and Cribellata, even before hatching, a second nymphal stage is laid under the first embryonic membrane, thus the third nymphal stage emerges from the egg.
If the these insects is lucky to live in a field, far from people, then its biological life can range from 3 months to 5 years. Again, unless it is eaten by the bird. Spiders live longest in zoos and home terrariums. Here, their life can reach more than 15 years of age.
Types of domestic and wild spiders (how long and where do live)?
In apartments and private houses, the following arthropods can most often be found:
How do you recognize them? Their life expectancy is different. The distinctive features of the black spider are as follows:
Miniature body size, average length about 1.5 cm, or a little longer.
The thread is shaped like a tube.
Types of domestic insects
The widow has a body length of no more than 1 cm, an oval or round abdomen, 8 long legs. He prefers to weave a web in dark corners or under window sills. Black spiders often have yellowish patterns on the body, which is densely covered with hairs. There are several pairs of eyes, but arthropods are guided primarily by other senses.
The gray ones are also small, up to 15 mm. After the prey has fallen into the net, the spider restores the web; it is mainly females that weave it.
The black tramp does not weave a thread, but is large in size. He can get into the house through a door or window. It is distinguished by long legs, elongated body. How does this giant hunt? He rushes at the selected victim, injects poison, eats it and goes on. That is why such black arthropods will not become regular guests of your apartment. Having rid her of insects, they will continue on their way.
The haymaking is often also called the centipede or scythe. The most remarkable thing in its appearance is its long legs (their length reaches 5 cm with a body length of only 1 cm). The number of legs is eight. The web is not sticky, but it is so cunningly intertwined that a trapped insect has no chance of freeing itself. And the waiting hunter is already running to his victim, ready to inject a lethal dose of poison into its quivering body.This creature prefers to settle in dry, warm places, especially near windows and in hard-to-reach corners, and most often hangs upside down. It is interesting that the haymaker is trying with all his might to prevent a large insect from entering his net, in case of danger he begins to swing the web.
Jumping spiders. This is a special type of jumping domestic arthropod, the owner of eight eyes placed in three rows. It can differ in a wide variety of body color and abdominal pattern. Due to the presence of tiny hairs and claws on the legs, this arthropod easily moves on glass surfaces. It is interesting that this spider is an exception among its fellows, it does not belong to predators, preferring to eat acacia flowers.
Types of wild poisonous spiders (how long and where do live)?
Brazilian soldier spiders (Latin Phoneutria) are fast, very active and, most importantly, a poisonous animal. It is also called the armed, or banana spider. He got his name due to the fact that he does not weave a spider's thread, like most of his brothers, because he does not need it, as he prefers a nomadic lifestyle. He loves to enter human housing, where he can hide in shoes, clothes or dishes.
Brazilian soldiers (Latin Phoneutria)
He lives in South America. He hunts insects, other these insects and even birds, he loves to feast on bananas. The 10-centimeter predator possesses toxic venom that can kill a child or a weakened adult before assistance is provided. The venom of some specimens can be so dangerous that a person can die in 20-30 minutes.
The brown recluse (Latin Loxosceles reclusa) is a type of araneomorphic spider from the family Sicariidae. Lives in the eastern United States. This arthropod animal possesses a poison that is very dangerous for human life, causing loxoscellism (necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue). It gets along well next to a person.
Brown recluse (Latin Loxosceles reclusa)
Can weave random nets in bundles or armfuls of firewood, in sheds, basements, garages, attics and other convenient places. Often they penetrate into human housing, where they hide in shoe boxes, in clothes, linen, behind baseboards or paintings - in a word, in those places that correspond to the natural habitats of this spider - holes, crevices, tree bark.
Sydney leukopaut or funnel spider
The Sydney leukopaut or funnel (lat.Atrax robustus) is a insect from the Hexathelidae family, the only one from the genus Atrax. Representative of the Australian continent. The funnel spider is one of the few species of spiders that can cause serious harm to human health, and sometimes even kill him.
Sydney leukopaut, or funnel (lat.Atrax robustus)
One bite from this spider is enough to kill a child. Death usually occurs within 15 minutes. The poison contains toxins that primarily affect the human nervous system. Interestingly, the venom of this spider is dangerous only for humans and primates, while it does not work on other mammals.
Mouse spiders (Latin Missulena) are from the Actinopodidae family. A total of 11 species are known. Ten of them are considered endemic to Australia, the 11th species (Latin Missulena tussulena) lives in Chile. They got their name (English mouse spiders) in view of the erroneous idea that they supposedly dig deep holes like mice.
Mouse spiders (lat.Missulena)
Mouse spiders prey on insects and other spiders. In addition, they themselves are food for wasps, scorpions, labiopods and bandicoots. The venom of this spider is of a protein nature and is considered dangerous to humans. Fortunately, they are rarely found in human habitation.
Black widows (lat. Latrodectus mactans) are a type of spider that is distributed throughout the world and is notorious. A widow's bite is very dangerous to human life. It is especially dangerous for young children, the sick and the elderly. They were called widows because after mating, the females eat the males.
Black widows (Latrodectus mactans)
Females are much more poisonous than males, which pose a danger exclusively during the mating season. Interestingly, the bites of black widows have resulted in more deaths than other species. These spiders love to crawl into human habitation, where they find suitable hunting grounds. Once in the blood, the poison spreads throughout the body, causing severe, persistent and painful muscle cramps.
The life span of a spider depends on many factors, including:
- environmental conditions;
- shedding frequency.
In natural conditions, spiders independently choose their habitat, but at home this factor is created artificially, and significantly affects the life span of a pet.
The life expectancy of representatives of this genus has a fairly wide range, it varies from 2 to 30 years. This indicator largely depends on the type of animal. On average, tarantulas live 5 -10 years, and the extreme values belong to two species.
In captivity, pets are provided with all the necessary living conditions, there is no external danger and the struggle for survival. This makes it possible to increase the duration of their life. Males will live for about 5 years, females will delight longer.
Hogna radiate, pseudotarantulas or wolf spiders represent the family of araneomorphic spiders. These are rather large arthropods, in some cases their size can exceed 30 millimeters. In total, there are 2367 species of such spiders. Most often they can be found in countries with warm climates.
Pseudotarantulas live in grassy meadows, shrubs, among fallen leaves and under stones, and the most favorite places are places with a high degree of humidity - forests located near water sources. Spiders live in burrows, shrouded inside with a thick layer of cobwebs; they leave their home at night to hunt insects or other smaller spiders. These spiders do not weave a web directly as traps.
Another feature of these arachnids is a peculiar body coloration and an amazing ability to disguise, merging with the environment. In nature, the most common spiders with a body of brown, gray or black.
Wolf spiders are natural stabilizers of the number of harmful insects and plant parasites, therefore they play a very important role in the balance of the ecosystem. They also destroy a huge number of pests of various horticultural and decorative flowering crops.
The average lifespan of a wolf spider can vary depending on size and species. As a rule, the smallest species live no more than twelve months.
Only very self-confident and fearless people can keep these arthropods at home. If you are able to tell the difference between a male and a female, create a spider union to oversee the breeding. Yes, and do not forget to protect the male: the spider will regularly encroach on his life. For an artificial lair you will need: a terrarium or an aquarium; sand mixed with gravel; moss, twigs and dry leaves. You will have to catch flies and cockroaches in order to throw your pets into the web when immobilized. In winter, there is no need to feed the spiders - they sleep, but they need to be slightly heated (with an electric lamp or warm air).
Spiders are hunters by nature, in order to survive, they need food, and only of animal origin, so for someit can be dragonflies and flies, for others mice and frogs. In general, a spider does not need to eat often, they can go without food for a very long time, for example, some species are able to live without food for two years.
But this does not apply to all types of spiders, especially young individuals in the first months of their life should receive food regularly, once or twice a day. Spiders sense the approach of a potential victim due to the presence of so-called sensory hairs on their body. They never lose their vigilance, and wait for prey at any time of the day.